Pencak silat is one type of arts and also sports, namely martial arts from Southeast Asia including Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, and also our country Indonesia. Pencak silat is an art tradition that is spread through the Malay Archipelago tradition. As time went on, this type of martial arts also began to spread to Vietnam which was spread by Indonesians. Until now the State of Vietnam gave birth to formidable fighters and founded the Pencak Silat parent organization in the country of Indonesia which was named the Indonesian Pencak Silat Association (IPSI).
Pencak silat has spread throughout the archipelago since the 7th century AD. However, until now no one has been able to ascertain when and how the origin of this pencak silat was spread. Some say that pencak silat is spread because of the skills of various indigenous tribes in Indonesia. These skills are like fighting using machetes, shields and spears. Examples of such traditions and customs in the Nias Islands where tribes named Nias tribes have spread their martial arts according to their custom is by using machete weapons. It is believed that up to the 20th century, the Nias tribe was not touched at all by outside culture.
Spread of Pencak Silat
If examined further, the pencak silat is actually spread through the lion or by word of mouth, orally. Like from teacher to student, for example. So it is not surprising if we find it difficult to find written history about this martial arts.
Some even say that the history of martial arts has been spread through various stories such as some legends in various regions, such as from one region to another and thoroughly to the homeland of the archipelago. So, it's no wonder if in the past the Majapahit kingdom or Sriwijaya were very good at fighting. Because all of them, especially warriors, have prepared high martial arts so that they can fight with the enemy with their skills.
An example is a legend from Minangkabau that says silat with the language that is 'silek'. Minangkabau people believe that pencak silat has been created by Datuk Suri Draja from Priangan, Tanah Datar which is at the foot of Mount Marapipada. Datuk Suri created and began to spread this silat tradition in the 11th century. And pencak silat was eventually spread throughout the archipelago including Indonesia. This archipelago land includes Indonesia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, parts of Singapore, and other countries in the Southeast Asia continent.
Then, over time, silek or silat began to be brought and developed to various countries, namely the land of Southeast Asia by Minang migrants. Maybe you've heard the story of 'Silat Cimande'. The story tells of a woman who performed silat by imitating two animals, monkeys and tigers. And there are many other silat leaders. Of course, in each region certainly have their own martial arts figures with various skills and silat skills possessed by the silat leaders or commonly referred to as warriors. The warriors for example are Si Pitung from Betawi, Hang Tuah, and Gajah Mada from Java, and there are many more warriors as silat leaders in their respective regions who have different skills.
Donald F. Draeger, who is one of the martial arts researchers, has argued that the evidence of this martial art can be seen from some of the weapons artifacts he has discovered. The weapons that were discovered were believed to have originated in the classical era, namely in the Hindu-Buddhist period in the archipelago. In fact, he also admitted that there was a history of pencak silat through reliefs that formed people in the style of horses at Prambanan Temple and Borobudur Temple.
Draeger wrote in his book that the weapons and art of pencak silat were inseparable. In fact he wrote that pencak silat is not only the body, but also must have a close spiritual relationship with customs and culture in the archipelago. This is why pencak silat is not only a sport, but also included in the arts branch as well as martial arts. There is martial arts from China and India in Silat - Sheikh Shamsuddin (2005).
This opinion has been proven because of the influence of Chinese and Indian culture during the Malay culture. The culture has been brought by traders and also nomads from India, China, and also from other countries.
The spread of Pencak Silat in the Malay Land
When pencak silat began to spread in the land of Malay, pencak silat also evolved with a variety of different names and streams. As in Malaysia and Singapore, silat is better known as the Gayong stream and is short-sighted. In Thailand, pencak silat has the name 'bersilat', while in the Philippines, it is named 'pasilat'. Even so, the term "silat" is better known by many people in various parts of Southeast Asia. This is the reason that pencak silat is a tradition that spreads from Sumatra to various countries.
The history of pencak silat also began to be written since the 14th century due to the influence of the propagators of religion in the land of Nusantara or Nuswantara. At that time, martial arts became the main lesson in religion as self protection when facing war. Because at that time, there were still various wars because territorial and political struggles were also power. Pencak silat martial arts lessons are also taught in various suras or mushalla and also religious places such as madrassas and pesantren. Usually they practice pencak silat after or before they recite. That is why silat is claimed as a martial art which is part of their spiritual practice. And this exercise is commonly referred to as "celebrating" or being united with nature. So, it is not surprising that many forms are born from nature such as animals, plants, and even disasters.
As time went on, pencak silat began to be used as the science of education not only as a martial arts but also as a defense of the State in the face of enemies from other countries. Initially, pencak silat was only a martial arts and cultural tradition art.
At present, pencak silat has been recognized as a Malay tribal culture consisting of the coastal regions of Sumatra and the Malak Peninsula, as well as various other tribes that use the lingua franca (peer language) Malay in various regions such as Java, Bali, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and islands others in the archipelago circle.
Pencak silat martial arts began to develop and continued to develop into several pencak silat organizations in the archipelago, including the Pencak Silat Association (IPSI) in the country of Indonesia, Persekutuan Silat Kebangsaan Malaysia (PESAKA) located in Malaysia, Persekutuan Silat Singapore (PERSIS) located in the State of Singapore, and the Brunei Darussalam Silat Alliance (PERSIB) in the State of Brunei Darussalam. So do not be surprised if it starts to grow and form even dozens of martial arts colleges in other parts of the world such as the United States and Europe.
Until now, pencak silat which was originally only as a martial art belonging to the spiritual sciences and traditional arts only, now pencak silat has been claimed to officially enter the sport to international scale. And in the end pencak silat entered the SEA Games match.
Development of Pencak Silat in the World
In the 20th century AD, pencak silat increasingly developed rapidly to the world and has officially become a sport science competition under the partnership of Pencak Silat Antara Bangsa (PERSILAT) or The International Pencak Silat Federation. Thus, pencak silat has been promoted by PERSILAT to various countries up to five continents so that pencak silat is included in sports that can be used as a sport which is included in the Olympics. So in other words, PERSILAT has promoted pencak silat to become an international sports competition. So that there are provisions and policies that members who take part in the international martial arts competition are members that have been recognized by PERSILAT.
Therefore, several martial arts federations have collaborated with PERSILAT to establish the European Pencak Silat Federation. The Federation has produced the first World Pencak Silat World Championship outside Asia in 1986 using a place in the Austrian city of Austria.
Pencak silat was introduced as part of the 2002 Asian Games performance program held in the city of Busan, South Korea. The Asian Games were the first Asian Games to include pencak silat as part of the program. And in December 2002 was the last World Pencak Silat Championship held in the city of Penang Negara Malaysia.
PERSILAT is not only trying to include pencak silat as a sports competition, but also strives not to forget the old tradition by introducing several old schools, one of which is "Silek" to various countries around the world. And there are hundreds or even thousands of different styles or styles that have been successfully taught and introduced in various foreign countries.
The term in Pencak Silat
As in other branches of science, pencak silat also has various terms that need to be known as an understanding of martial arts martial arts. The following are some terms in pencak silat.
1. Attitude and style
Pencak silat is a martial art and also traditional arts that use many attitudes or positions and also various movements of body organs such as the body, hands and feet. So no wonder if we often see fighters who have a lot of movement and position when facing opponents. Even these movements and positions vary according to the flow of the match and also the movements of the opponent to find the opponent's weakness. If they have found the opponent's weak point, then they are not responsible for attacking with quick movements so that the opponent is off guard and can be defeated.
Step is the main characteristic in the art of pencak silat. A true fighter must always pay attention to his steps and opponents in the match. Because this is very important for them in a match. The steps in pencak silat generally use 'Step Three' and 'Step Four'.
3. Technique or Fruit
Of course in pencak silat there must also be techniques or fruit. This technique is also divided into two groups namely defense techniques and attack techniques. Why is this technique also called fruit? This is a traditional term that is often used by former fighters. Because the technique in pencak silat is likened to fruit. In general, fighters use their hands, elbows, arms, legs, knees and soles in their attacking techniques. And common techniques include kick, punch, stumbling, locking, sweeping, holding, throwing, breaking joints, and so on.
Surely you often hear the stance of tigers, stance, chickens, monkey moves and so on in this martial arts martial arts. Yes, because in pencak silat, a true fighter and strong fighter must master at least one skill. That is why, they always use their skills in competing against their opponents. In general, fighters use various moves by imitating animal movements in both attacking and defending techniques. Kick is a series of basic movements on the upper and lower body parts.
These basic movements will later be used as a reference in mastering various advanced techniques of pencak silat called 'fruit', when done in practice alone or in pairs. Even in pencak silat there is also the term 'Pasan Dasar'. Basic Pasan is a flow in the whole body. So it is no wonder that there are some pencak silat who believe in using mysticism or inner soul.
It can also be proved that pencak silat was once a branch of knowledge involving a person's spiritual. So that not just anyone can use the stance in pencak silat, because only certain people and wisely use it that can use the moves in pencak silat. Even in general, moves are formed when fighters observe wild animals while fighting, then they pay attention to the movements, and learn the movements and imitate the movements of wild animals. This is where various forms often use animal names.
Aspects and Forms of Pencak Silat
In pencak silat there are four main aspects that need to be known, including:
1. Spiritual Mental Aspects
Only people who are wise and wise can use martial arts perfectly. Because pencak silat actually teaches humans to humans. In a simple sense, it is to develop and develop a noble and noble personality in yourself. Even believed that it is said, someone who wants to learn martial arts must go through various stages such as meditation or asceticism. So it can be said that this first aspect is an aspect that involves a person's soul and kebatinan to achieve knowledge in martial arts.
2. Aspects of Cultural Art
As previously stated, pencak silat is basically a traditional art science that involves local customs and culture. So that it can be said that pencak silat is one of the art of game culture. And culture is a very important aspect in martial arts. Therefore there is the word "Pencak" in pencak silat, because the meaning of the word "pencak" is a dance accompanied by music and wearing traditional clothing. So, this martial arts is not surprising if it has a lot of movement in its knowledge.
3. Self Defense Aspect
The term "silat" is what brings martial arts to the aspect of martial arts. A fighter must be able to master martial arts in pencak silat, because this is an aspect of technical ability in pencak silat.
4. Sports aspects
This is what brings pencak silat is something that involves physical or body. So that not only the brain and mind are used in pencak silat, but also using physical and strong bodies in the face of opponents. The fighter must often use his body so that his body can grow strong and well and is not easily defeated by the opponent during the match. This aspect of the sport includes moves, which are in the form of a double or a team or team.
There are four aspects in pencak silat that make different shapes and styles at each place of college or hermitage. It depends on which aspects will be emphasized in the hermitage. Because each hermitage certainly has different beliefs to determine which aspects to use. This is in accordance with the policies and objectives of the hermitage.
Like the hermitage that applies tiger and monkey stance. This may be that they emphasize sports aspects because they use physical in fighting in general. Although there are also those who argue that sports such as physical and breathing are the main aspects in developing martial arts. However, this aspect makes pencak silat famous to various countries up to the European continent.