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Discus Throw | History, Understanding, Techniques, Regulations
A. History of Discs Based on historical records that throwing discs is one of the athletic numbers, we can learn from Homer's book entitled "Odyssy" in ancient times. In the book Odyssy tells that the basic movement of athletics is the way, running, jumping and throwing that was known by primitive people in prehistoric times. It can even be said since the existence of humans, these movements are known. They make road moves, run, jump and throw solely to maintain their survival. In this business they are very dependent on their physical efficiency. Those who are less skilled, less able to walk, less fast running, less agile jumping or throwing will die of starvation or become prey to wild animals and may even be victims of natural disasters. So since prehistoric times, humans have realized the benefits of endurance walking, running speed, jumping and throwing agility. So there are some people who consider athletics as the oldest sport. The Dutch call it "Athletics is a moerder der sporten" which means athletics is the parent of all sports. Although this basic athletic movement has been known since the existence of humans, athletic competitions including throwing discs that have been carried out in historical records only occurred in ancient times about 1000 BC. This can be known from the Greek poet book written by Homeros. In this book also Homeros tells the advent of Odysseus. That at one point Odysseus was stranded in an archipelago which later turned out to be named Phaeacia, the king named Alcinaus. After Odysseus was brought before the king, a lively reception was held. During the event a series of competitions were held. Phaeacia youths presented their skills in sprinting, wrestling, jumping, boxing and disc throwing. After the circuit was finished, King Aleinaus asked Odysseus to give a demonstration of throwing the disc. At first Odysseus rejected him subtly, but the king urged him on the grounds that Phaeacia's young man could see how to throw a perfect disc, so the king's request had to be fulfilled. Without releasing his metal armor, Odysseus rose to ask the king for permission, then entered the arena taking the heaviest disc and with the sweetest style of throwing the disc, the disc dissipated and fell far from the distance that the athletes from Phaeacia reached (Sunaryo Basuki, 1979: 24). From the excerpt of this book, it is certain that the ancient Greeks knew about athletics, here we see numbers of running, jumping, and throwing discs which are the athletic numbers we know today. B. History of Discus Throwing in Indonesia Speaking of discus throwing in Indonesia, we cannot separate from athletic history. Because throwing discs is the number or part of athletics. So in Indonesia athletics including throwing discs are known through the Dutch, who half-century colonized Indonesia. However, athletics including throwing discs are not widely known. Then during the Japanese occupation from the beginning of 1942-1945 sports activities experienced a development. This can be seen in the morning all students and employees are required to do gymnastics. In addition, martial arts and athletic lessons are included, including throwing discs. But all physical activities carried out by the entire Indonesian nation are only for the benefit of the Japanese people themselves, in an effort to win the war (Drs. Aip Syrifuddin, 1998: 3). Then after Indonesia's independence the development of sports including discus throwing became more widespread and even everyone was given the opportunity to do athletic exercises including throwing discs (Drs. Sunaryo Basuki, 1979: 37). From the explanation of athletic history above, then in this chapter the author will describe the following: Arm length Throw a disc The effect of length, with respect to the performance of throwing discs C. Arm Length Arm length is one of the factors that must be considered in sports, especially disc throwing, because the length of the arm will allow for maximum achievement. This is in accordance with the opinion that says that body shape or body posture is one of the determining factors in achieving maximum achievement (Soeharno H. P. 1985: 8). Besides the length of the arm, it can also be influenced by several factors including strength. This is in accordance with the opinion that says that the strength of the arm is the ability of the arm muscle groups to be able to overcome prisoners or the burden of carrying out activities (Drs. Soeharno H. P. 1985: 224), The standard used to measure arm length using a steel meter (anthropometer) is measured through the base of the shoulder joint at the top to the tip of the middle finger. This is in accordance with the opinion that says that the arm is a member of the upper part of the movement from the shoulder bracelet to the tip of the finger (Soedarminta, 1994: 108). Based on the above opinion, the measurement results can be read in accordance with what is stated on the measuring instrument. Students who have arm lengths above the average are considered as long-sleeved students, while students who have arm lengths below the average are considered short-sleeved students. For athletic sports, especially disc throwing numbers, if there is someone who has a long arm, the tendency will affect the distance of the throw if supported by good muscle strength when compared to someone who has short arms. D. Discus Throw There are several things about throwing discs which will be described as follows: 1. Testing of discs 2. Discus throwing techniques 3. Regulations for throwing discs 1. Definition of throwing discs To understand the meaning of throwing discs, we first understand the meaning of throwing discs. Throwing is a sport with throwing (javelin, bullet, hammer, disc). (W. J. S. Poerwadarminta, 1976: 584). While the disc of a wooden object in the form of a plate with a metal belt (Didi Sugandi, 1986: 51). So throwing discs is one of the numbers in the athletic competition that uses a wooden object in the form of a plate with iron belts, or another round flat material thrown. 2. Discus throwing techniques a How to hold the disc To make it easier to hold it, the disc is placed on the left hand palm (for left-handed throwers) while the right palm is placed above the center of the disc, the four fingers are slightly (open) covering the edges of the disc (the last finger covers the disc) while the thumb is free. b. There are two styles of discus throwing • Side style The initial stance is tilted / sideways towards the target, a moment will begin to rotate the right arm is swung backward, the axis of rotation on the left foot (the front of the foot or the tip) during the right arm is always behind, in a position to throw the body down the right arm behind the view towards the target, after the disc from the right foot step stepped forward resting on the left foot, which at that time had swung backwards. • Back style The first attitude standing back to the direction of the throw will momentarily rotate the right arm swung far behind the view starting to glance to the left, when it starts rotating the tip of the left foot as the axis and repulsion of the left foot also the body slides towards the throw, right foot swung swiftly to the left to resting, for a moment the right foot landed on the left foot quickly also swung to the left to stand on and there was a throwing attitude, after the disc free from the right foot was immediately swung forward and the left foot swung backwards. 3. Rules for throwing discs The disc throw must begin with a standing attitude balanced with the throwing circle without stepping on the circle line. The thrower may not leave the throwing circle before the jury says the position is valid through the inner half circle. The thrower may touch the inner wall of the throw limit beam but may not touch the upper part. The throw will be measured by throws drawn from the former falling disc that is closest to the edge in the beam. If the participant is more than 8 people, then the participant will be given the right to throw 3 times, then the 8 best throwers will be determined to take part in the next round (final). If the competitor is 8 people or less, the chance to throw as many as 6 times is final. The throw circle is made of iron, steel or other suitable material. The top is mounted flat on the ground outside. The inside is made of cement, asphalt or other material that is sturdy but not slippery the inside surface must be flat lower 14 mm to 26 mm from the top edge of the circle. The size of the inner diameter of the throw circle is 2.5 m, the thickness of the iron circle throws 6 mm and must be painted white. A 5 cm wide white line should be pulled from the top of a 75 cm long iron circle on both sides of the circle. 4. Factors that affect achievement in discus throwing a Internal factors or from within the athlete 1. Good physical and mental health We as humans are formed from physical and spiritual elements, both of which play an important role and cannot be separated from each other due to mutual influence. If physically disturbed by a disease, the fsikispun factor is also disrupted. Therefore physical health must always be maintained in a healthy condition. Thus psychic factors, maintenance can be done by maintaining a healthy environment so that the mind remains clear, and peace of mind and so on, determines because all activities in achieving achievement require substantial funding. b. External factors (from within athletes) 1. Family environment Families can be expressed as a group or the smallest unit of society in which there is a close relationship between its members. Parents in a family educate their children naturally by giving encouragement. 2. Exercise Exercise is a process of preparing athletic organisms in a systematic way to achieve quality, maximum achievement by being given the burden of regular physical and mental training, directed, increased and repeated (Rusli Nursalam, 1990: 19). Exercise instructions Basically there are no differences in training needs for throwers, if there are differences only found in the technical exercises carried out (Sugito, 1994: 232). Broadly speaking, besides the need for training to improve the technical requirements, the throw number chosen by throwers requires the following exercises: 1. Strength training The thrower who wants to succeed must develop the strength of his muscles by weight training or weight training. The principles of weight training are the willingness to repeat what is learned. Movement is widened many times so that eventually the movements can be carried out without thinking, everything has taken place automatically, quickly and efficiently. Exercise must be heavy enough to stimulate adaptations in the body. Light training will not lead to progress in ability or vice versa. Exercises must be improved, training must be organized. In the end, this achievement ability is limited by the talent stored in children (Bambang Wijanarko, 1994: 113). In choosing the type of exercise should be adjusted to the number of throws that are followed, during the preparation period the second stage can be done 2 times a week, and during the race can still be done once a week. 2. Speed training A thrower must not only be strong, but also able to move quickly. For throwers, speed will provide explosive power which is very useful to increase throwing achievements. Speed training for throwers can take the form of: 30 meters running, jumping well, going up 3 times and pulping up. 3. Endurance training A thrower must also have endurance. This can be achieved by exercising gross country and running interval. 4. Agility and skill training A thrower must also have agility and skill. This can be achieved by training: floor gymnastics and dexterity, rope skiping.
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